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The Figure

Kengo Kuma

Founder of Kengo Kuma and Associates

Professor, Graduate School of Architecture, the Univesity of Tokyo

 

隈研吾

建筑设计大师

隈研吾建筑都市设计事务所创始人

东京大学教授

The Interview

Why wouldn’t you first briefly introduce yourself to our GARLIC audience?

很荣幸您能接受我们的专访。能否请您简短地向GARLIC的读者介绍一下自己?

I am Kengo Kuma, an architect based in Tokyo.

我是隈研吾,是一名来自东京的建筑师。

“Historically, the architecture of design and natural disaster are very much related.”

“从历史角度上看,建筑设计与自然灾害是密切相关的。”

You have been talking about natural disaster and its vulnerability of architecture in Japan. You design philosophy for any object is to dissolve architecture into nature by using proper natural materials. In your opinion, how could architecture respond to the natural disasters in the larger landscape?

您曾经对此提到日本的自然灾害和建筑的关系。您的设计哲学是通过尝试使用自然的材料将建筑融入自然当中。在您看来在较大的景观环境中,建筑如何应对自然灾害呢?

I think, historically, the architecture of design and natural disaster are very much related. One example is disaster happened in 1951, there is more than 60,000 people died, that disaster is a cause of modernism movement. Modernism movement is very much related to the disaster. The second world war is also very much related to the architecture of the design afterward. And Kenzo Tange’s style and his ideas (are) based on the disaster. How to recover from the second world war is the theme of his design.

And my generation was very much connected to the crustal wave­- 1995 disaster in the Kobe (Great Hanshin Earthquake), and 2011 disaster in the up-north area (Tohoku Earthquake). As those two disasters, those two catastrophes, have changed my design philosophy very much. And what I am thinking after the two disasters were (that) we are very weak. We should respect nature, and nature is much stronger than human. And my architecture is based on that as a definition of human. The reason why I use natural material and the reason why I try to achieve sustainability came from those two disasters.

丹下健三设计的1964 – St. Mary Cathedral by Kenzo Tange |  © www.architecturetokyo.wordpress.com

我认为从历史角度上看,建筑设计与自然灾害是密切相关的。一个例子是1951年发生的一场灾难有超过6万多人死亡。这场灾难代表着现代主义(建筑)运动的开端。现代主义与灾难的渊源颇深,第二次世界大战对建筑设计同样有深远的影响。丹下健三的建筑设计风格和理念就是基于考虑如何从第二次世界大战中恢复,这也是他的设计主题。

而我这一代人经历了1995年阪神大地震和2011年东北大地震。这两场灾难都在很大程度上改变了我的设计哲学。在灾难面前人类是如此的弱小。我们应该尊重自然,自然远比人类强大。我对建筑赋予人类意义的定义由此产生。我对使用自然材料的热衷和实现设计可持续性的理念均是出自于对这两场灾难的深思。

1995年阪神大地震 (Great Hanshin Earthquake) |  © www.ibtimes.co.uk
2011年东日本大地震 (Tohoku Earthquake)  |  © Youtube Video: Fast Fact – 2011 Tohoku Earthquake

“Every project I tried to respect the environment. The scale doesn’t matter. Even a small project, I tried to find the best solution to create harmony. “

“每个项目我都会尊重环境。尺度并不是最重要。即使是一个小项目,我都尽力去寻找这种和谐关系的最佳方案。”

The projects in your office have various scales, from large scale public architecture to interior design, how do you understand the role of design to make a larger social impact through those different scales projects?

您公司的项目有非常不同的规模。从较大规模的公共建筑到小规模的室内设计,您是如何在不同规模的项目中让设计能够获得更多的社会影响力的?

I think the role of myself is to show the new type of architecture after two disasters. One very important (role) is the collection of the modern type of architecture to the harmony with the environment. As I am designing a new Olympic stadium, that design is not so monumental. It is very subtle with lots of design which is merging into the forest, into a beautiful park of Tokyo.

Every project I tried to respect the environment. The scale doesn’t matter. Even a small project, I tried to find the best solution to create harmony. And for the bigger building, we also try to create harmony. Each project looks different, because each has an environment, and each has a circumstance difference. And I enjoyed that kind of difference.

两场大地震之后我对自己角色的定位是展示建筑新的可能性。对于现代建筑来说其中一个非常重要的理念是建筑与环境的和谐。我正在参与设计2020年东京奥林匹克运动会新的主场馆,其设计本身并不是像纪念碑般规模宏大。它的设计是很微妙的,我们有意地让建筑融入森林,延伸进东京美丽的公园。

每个项目我都会尊重环境。项目的规模并不是最重要。即使是一个小规模项目,我都尽力去寻找这种和谐关系的最佳方案。对于大的项目来说,我们同样秉持着和谐的设计概念。这使得每一个项目都看起来不同,因为每一个项目都带有与众不同的环境特质。而恰恰是这种与众不同让我乐在其中。

2020 Tokyo Olympic Stadium | © Japan Sports Council / via Curbed | © www.archdaily.com

“My attitude to the commercial project is basically I want to make people happy. “

“我对商业项目的态度基本上是使用户感到快乐。”

How do you think architecture industry has been influenced by the power of capital? I know clients like your projects very much. You are very successful in commercial projects; how do you make that happen?

您认为资本是如何影响建筑行业的?我知道您的客服都非常喜欢您的作品。您在商业建筑领域有较高的知名度,您是如何做到的?

My attitude to the commercial project is basically I want to make people happy.  For all projects, what we want to create is a comfortable and enjoyable space. Also, we would like to design with a threshold. And the goal of those projects is to make people happy, active, comfortable that kind of things. Another attitude or another type of architecture is trying to be artists. And the artist is isolated from society. As (to) make them look like artists. My projects and attitudes are opposite. I don’t want to be an artist.  I think (that) the artists are focusing on one element. The 20th-century artists should step out of those old views. We should work for society, we should react to the society, and that is more important than the artist.

我对商业项目的态度基本上是使用户感到快乐。对于这类项目,我们希望通过建筑设计以创造出舒适愉悦的空间。我们喜欢设计一些临界条件,这些项目通常希望的目标是让使用者感受快乐、积极、舒适。另一类建筑师秉持着不同的态度,比如尽量当个一名艺术家。艺术家通常与社会割裂,以使其看起来更像艺术家。我的项目和设计态度是与之截然相反的。我不想成为艺术家,我认为艺术家通常只关注一个元素。20世纪的艺术家需要走出旧的价值观。我们应该为社会创造作品并与之呼应,我认为这才是更重要的。

Shizuku by Chef Naoko | © www.kkaa.co.jp
Shizuku by Chef Naoko | © www.kkaa.co.jp

“混凝土并不是完美的。因此,我开始尝试运用更多自然材料。”

” The concrete is not perfect. And then I slowly shifted my position to the (natural) material. “

Why do you change your mind from using the concrete to using natural materials?

是什么原因让您放弃使用混凝土而更多地使用如木材之类的自然材料?

When I was a student, the professor taught me how to use concrete. How to do it beautifully, environmentally, and that is the education system in the 20th century. But time by time, I began to think the concrete cannot make us happy. Structurally,  it is a very strong and functional material. But the composition between the material and human, for that issue, the concrete is not perfect. And then I slowly shifted my position to the (natural) material. If you want me to say one person’s name, that would be Frank Lloyd Wright. His architecture sometimes used wood in a beautiful way. He began to inspire us.

当我还是一名学生的时候,有一位教授曾经教我如何使用混凝土。如何把建筑做得美观且环保。但那是20世纪的(建筑)教育。然而随着时间的推移,我逐渐意识到混凝土不能让我们开心。从结构的角度来看,混凝土是坚硬且功能性很强的材料。但从材料与使用者的感受来看,混凝土并不是完美的。因此,我开始尝试运用更多自然材料。如果要举一个影响我的建筑师的话,我认为是弗兰克·赖特。他在建筑设计中将木材运用得优美得体,是他启发了我们。

GC Prostho Museum Research Center | © www.kkaa.co.jp
GC Prostho Museum Research Center | © www.kkaa.co.jp

“Asian arts and Asian cultures can be the strong tool to create such diversity.”

“亚洲的艺术和文化是孕育这种多样性的有效途径。”

How do you see the western culture influence the architectures in the Asian Countries? How do you see the impact of projects happened in the eastern Countries like Japan and China now?

您是如何看待西方文化对于亚洲国家建筑影响的?您又如何看待目前日本和中国的建筑项目的影响力的?

In the 20th century, modernism movement came from Europe and America. As Internationalism and globalization, there is a theme for the 20th century. In that movement, they were trying to make monolithic as a new form. But now, we are going to the different relation. Diversity and the vernacular of places began (as) the theme of this period. Asian arts and Asian cultures can be the strong tool to create such diversity. I believe, now we are going shifting from Europe to Asia and Beijing.

20世纪,现代主义运动起源于欧洲和美国。它具有国际化、全球化的效应,它在20世纪具有一个特定的主题。这场运动中,人们试图将建筑作为一种统一的新形式。但是现在,我们正在经历一个全新的时代,多元化和各地的民族文化成为了时代的主题。亚洲的艺术和文化是孕育这种多样性的有效途径。我相信,关注焦点正在从欧美转向亚洲和北京。

The GARLICer

Interview

Zhangkan Zhou
Siyang Jing

Editor

Shuke
Yumeng
Dawei
Kaiyi (Web)

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